Gross Human Rights Violations (Murder, Massacre, Rape, Torture, Violent Humiliation) + Mass Cultural Destruction
Members of specific communities are humiliated and harmed based on their identities while important institutions and symbols of the group are desecrated and destroyed, including religious, cultural and educational institutions, religious, cultural and intellectual leaders, sacred texts, national museums and libraries, and so forth. Individual members may be killed sporadically as a part of the genocidal process, but massacres, if they exist, are small and infrequent. This pattern is often tied to a long-term genocidal process and does not always have a mass killing dimension, at least early on. It can include such acts as high rates of child removal, the ‘reeducation’ of children so they forget their native languages and traditions, killing children or pregnant women to demoralize the group, the denial of identity and citizenship, the erasure of history, the banning of languages, the renaming of the physical world, and the desecration of graves.